The astonishing discovery of flexible soft tissues in the fossilized bones of a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex1 has been upsetting for those committed to the “old earth” model of Darwinian evolution. Under ordinary conditions, the body of any dead animal will predictably decay very rapidly, with microbes destroying any soft tissue left by insect scavengers within a matter of weeks. If the carcass is rapidly buried by sediment, a requirement for fossilization, it would be protected from scavengers. Furthermore, any rapid drying of the sediment could inhibit microbial growth and slow down degradation of the soft tissue. However, how likely would it be for delicate blood vessels to remain intact, or tiny red blood cells? Would collagen remain flexible, even stretchy, for 70 million years? Dr. Mary Schweitzer published a follow-up study of her initial findings in 2007.2 Amazingly, she found soft tissue in fossils was not rare: nearly half of their bone samples from the Jurassic Period (145 to 200 million years ago) contained preserved soft tissue. It was even possible to perform amino acid sequencing of samples. In seeking to explain how soft tissue could remain so very long, the researchers hypothesized that elemental iron could have been involved, somewhat like formaldehyde preserves biopsied tissue today. Since Dr. Schweitzer’s discovery in 2005, others have reported that they, too, have found soft tissue preserved within ancient fossils. These findings include eyeballs from an extinct bird3, an entire dinosaur brain (dated 133 million years old), with discernible capillaries and meninges4, as well as soft tissue from duckbill dinosaurs, dinosaur eggs, embryonic sauropods, mosasaur, scorpions, and even tube worms dated 551 million years old.
Who could have imagined that delicate soft tissues could remain so long? It defies any reasonable belief, as well as scientific research. Researchers studying soft tissue degradation examined 158 Moa bones buried in New Zealand at known times in the past few centuries, and by measuring the surviving mitochondrial DNA in each specimen, they were able to calculate the rate of decay. At the rate they calculated, there would be no detectable DNA after 650,000 years, let alone 70 million years. In another study measuring the survival rate of collagen in cow and human bones, it was calculated that collagen could conceivably survive under some conditions for several hundred thousand years, but certainly no longer than a million years5.
The problem here, is that for the evolution model of life (by random mutations) to seem believable, Carl Sagan’s time frame of “billions and billions” of years is absolutely required. Because C14 dating is invalid beyond 12,000 years, and other radioactive dating methods require questionable assumptions on the initial proportion of the elements, sedimentary strata are dated using circular reasoning. Fossils are dated by their strata, and the strata are dated by key fossils. If fossilized dinosaur bones must actually be less than one million years old to have preserved soft tissue, the entire superstructure of Darwinian evolution falls apart, and the entire humanist educational establishment loses its chief scientific rationale. More than that, the “young earth” creationist explanation for the origin of life suddenly becomes attractive, as does the Noah’s Flood explanation for the vast sedimentary rock deposits around the globe. For atheists, that would be intolerable, for it would support the idea that the Bible is exactly what it claims to be, the authoritative Word of God.
All this, of course, leads us back to Noah’s Boys. Written for all ages, these exciting tales of romance and adventure give us an idea what it was really like in those final years before Noah’s Flood. Look for the next book to come out this year!
4. David Norman, paleontologist at the University of Cambridge, as reported to the Geological Society of London in October 2016
5. For more information, see the excellent articles on “Solid Answers on Soft Tissue” by Brian Thomas, Science Writer for the Institute for Creation Research, including April 3, 2016.
What others are saying...
“Noah’s Boys—Because sometimes things end in catastrophe.”
— S. Macbeth
“Finally! A Noah’s story for adults!”
— Enoch’s Valley News
“Realistic, yet hopeful; sheer fun!”
— J. Springfield
Popular posts from this blog
The Standard Geologic Column is a hypothetical model of historical geology based on Charles Lyell’s classic book Principles of Geology , published in 1830. Rejecting the biblical catastrophist worldview (Noah’s Flood), Lyell devised a new interpretive framework that rejected God, rejected the Bible’s record, and presupposed that presently observed processes were “the key to the past.” Perhaps because rejecting the biblical view also meant rejecting the moral constraints of the Bible, Lyell’s uniformitarian view rapidly became popular. It soon attracted the particular attention of Charles Darwin, who was happy to discover vast periods of time to make his atheistic model of evolution seem plausible. According to the evolutionary view, the earth is at least 4.5 billion years old, and the 6-8 mile thick blanket of sedimentary rock that covers the earth only gradually accumulated over millions of years. Layers in the “geologic column” are dated by certain index fossils, and reve
We had another health crisis in the family recently. The man who was husband, father, and Grandpa had a heart attack. Phone calls buzzed between parents, siblings, and children about serious things—truly matters of life and death. But it is amazing how often we laughed and recalled other times when coping skills and faith were tested—like on Grandma H’s Funeral Day. She had died swiftly, almost without pain and with one of the greatest exit lines ever. She admitted to being 85 but was actually 88-- or so, as records of her birth burned with the courthouse years before. Grandma, while never really sick, “enjoyed” ill health—not with moans or groans, but with expressive sighs for every occasion. On the day she died, she had baked her famous chocolate potato torte. Her last action before going to the hospital was turning off the oven. Less than an hour later, in the small county hospital, she took her husband’s hand in the same way she had for
This is the book I have waited years for--a genuinely evidence-based textbook on Geology. The author, Dr. Timothy Clarey, does not, like most geologists, begin with the worn-out presumption of gradualism--that the rocks beneath our feet were slowly laid down over millions and billions of years. Instead, he freshly examines the actual physical evidence of cores drilled in recent years. Interestingly, this evidence actually supports biblical catastrophism! This book represents a paradigm shift in geology, an exciting departure from the tired doctrines of unimaginative tenured professors. Pointing to the example of the vast sedimentary depositions that occurred in the Mt. St. Helens eruption forty years ago this week, the author lays out the evidence in a stepwise manner. He begins with the movement of tectonic plates, and moves on to the vast sedimentary layers that make up the bulk of the surface of the earth. In the old geology model, these layers were identified by certain key fos